The following examples illustrate the notes and bibliography style. Sample notes show full citations followed by shortened forms that would be used after the first citation. Sample bibliography entries follow the notes. For more details and many more examples, see chapters 16 and 17 of Turabian.
For examples of the same citations using the author-date system, go to Author-Date: Sample Citations. Sassler, Sharon, and Amanda Jayne Miller. Oakland: University of California Press, In a note, cite specific pages.
In the bibliography, include the page range for the chapter or part. Rowlandson, Mary. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, The Making of the American Essay. Jhumpa Lahiri, In Other Wordstrans. Knopf, Lahiri, Jhumpa. In Other Words. Translated by Ann Goldstein. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, For books consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database.
For other types of e-books, name the format. If no fixed page numbers are available, cite a section title or a chapter or other number in the notes or, if possible, track down a version with fixed page numbers. Fyodor Dostoevsky, Crime and Punishmenttrans. Constance Garnett, ed. Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice.Source citations in the Turabian manual come in two varieties: 1 notes and bibliography or simply notes and 2 author-date.
These two systems are also sometimes referred to as Chicago-style citations, because they are the same as the ones presented in The Chicago Manual of Style. If you already know which system to use, follow one of the links above to see sample citations for a variety of common sources. Otherwise, read on. In this system, sources are cited in numbered footnotes or endnotes.
Each note corresponds to a raised superscript number in the text. Sources are also usually listed in a separate bibliography. This system is very flexible and can easily accommodate a wide variety of sources.
Each citation in the text matches up with an entry in a reference list, where full bibliographic information is provided. Aside from the way they cite sources in the text, the two styles are very similar. You will also find more information here. For a more detailed description of the styles and many more examples, see chapters 16 and 17 of the 9th edition of the Turabian manual for notes style and chapters 18 and 19 for author-date style.
Go to Author-Date Style.This guide explains all of the juicy details to referencing sites in your APA research papers. Think of it like a tree. A site is the tree and the individual pages are the branches. YouTube is the site, and the individual channel pages are the branches. Wikipedia is a site, and each article has its own individual page on that site.
Q: This page describes citing specific pages and articles. Can I cite an entire site? A: According to the APA manual 6th editionit is not necessary to cite a site in its entirety in a reference list.
Instead, include a reference in the body of your paper. This guide focuses on how to cite individual pages found on the web.
When you include a piece of information from a site in your project, you must include two citations: a brief citation in the text and also a full citation on the reference page. When it comes to mentions in the text, students are sometimes tempted to put the web address in the body of a project. However, URLs can be long, clunky, and distracting. They should never be written in the body of a project.
Instead of writing the full address in the text, either use the last name of the author and the date the source was published OR, if no author is shown, the title of the individual page and the date. Cite your source.
Uri, J. Fifty years ago: Nearly one month to boots in lunar dust. Need more in-text citation APA website info? You may also like our full-length guide on how to create an APA in-text citation. Note: A retrieval date is no longer required for all online sources.
Last, F. Year, Month Date Published. Article title or page title. Retrieved from URL.
Citing Books in Turabian
Limer, E. Heck yes! The first free wireless plan is finally here. View Screenshot Cite your source. Cain, K. The Negative effects of Facebook on communication. Satalkar, B.
Water aerobics.Material on this page adapted from Kate L. In manual, see Citing Books in Turabian Additional Navigation.
Knopf Books for Young Readers, Knopf Books for Young Readers, Wedding Planning in Westeros. New York: Alfred K. Knopf Books for Young Readers. Chris M. Edited by Chris M. No: A Guide to Setting Boundaries. Robinson, American Historical Reviewno. Entry in a Bibliography Mokyr, Joel. American Historical Reviewno. New York: Fake Publishing Publishers, Accessed November 7, ProQuest Ebrary.
Cambridge: Cambridge Publishers, Accessed January 2, Boston: Boston University Publishing, Create an account to save all of your citations.
Learn how to cite websites, books, journal articles, magazines, newspapers, films, social media, and more!
Read up on what APA is, or use our citing tools and APA examples to create citations for websites, books, journals, and more! Learn about footnotes, endnotes, and everything in between, or easily create citations for websites, books, journal articles, and more!
Confused about reflexive verbs, demonstrative adjectives, or conjunctive adverbs? Look no further! Learn about these grammar topics and many, many more in our thorough and easy to understand reference guides!
Stay up to date! Get research tips and citation information or just enjoy some fun posts from our student blog. Keep all of your citations in one safe place Create an account to save all of your citations. Cancel anytime. Consider your source's credibility. Can you contact them? Do they have social media profiles? Have other credible individuals referenced this source or author? Book: What have reviews said about it? Are they well-respected? Do they take responsibility for the content?
How to cite a Website in Chicago/Turabian
Are they selective about what they publish? Take a look at their other content. Do these other articles generally appear credible? Bias Does the author or the organization have a bias? Does bias make sense in relation to your argument?
Is the purpose of the content to inform, entertain, or to spread an agenda? Is there commercial intent? Are there ads? Currency When was the source published or updated?
How to Cite a Website in APA
Is there a date shown? Does the publication date make sense in relation to the information presented to your argument? Does the source even have a date? Reproduced Was it reproduced? If so, from where? If it was reproduced, was it done so with permission?
Student Blog Stay up to date!Do you need to cite a website or other online material in Chicago or Turabian style? Look no further than this page! Before diving into the citation examples, there are a few things that are important to know when it comes to citing online material. Because online material can disappear any moment, make sure that you record all the information about the website when you are using it. You might even want to consider taking a screenshot if you think you might need more information later.
If an author is not clear, you can use the site owner or publisher. However, if no author, owner, or publisher can be readily identified, your source may be unreliable and you might want to reconsider using it and finding something more authoritative. Titles for online material can be tricky, as there may not always be a clear title.
Titles of websites are generally set in roman without quotation marks and capitalized in title case. In a small departure from the 16th edition, CMOS 17 specifies that if the website has a print counterpart such as the websites for newspapers and other publicationsthen it should be in italics.
If it does not, then it should be treated normally. See the examples below:. Titles of sections of web pages or pages within a larger website should be placed in quotation marks CMOS 8.
Dates are very important in online material because this type of material changes constantly. You must include a date of publication if you can find one. If there is a revision or modification date in place of the publication date, use that. Revision dates may also be helpful when citing material that is regularly updated like Wikipedia CMOS While Chicago style does not require the use of an access date in most cases, if you cannot find a publication date or revision date, you should include an access date.
If you are writing a scientific or medical research piece, access dates might be required in addition to publication or revision dates, so you might want to check with your instructor CMOS If a URL links to a database that requires a subscription, it is better to name the database e. Chicago style does not always require website material to be cited in a bibliography. Sometimes it is enough to describe the content in the text. You can include a formal citation if needed and our examples below will help you out.
Keep in mind, however, that this only applies to general web content, social media, and personal communications like email or Facebook messages. For most other online material, you should include a formal citation.
Limer, Eric. October 1, With general website content, you are likely to encounter missing information. For example, there may be no author listed.We usually plan vacation trips on our own, but we knew that we needed a tour company's guidance to help us make the most out of our trip.
We found Nordic Visitor online and chose it after reading about the comprehensive services offered by the company. We corresponded at length before the trip was booked, and he was very responsive to all of my questions.
We selected the Pearls of the South and West (Winter) self-drive tour package, with two extra days. I inadvertently provided him the wrong information about our arrival date in Iceland, and he adjusted our itinerary right away.
We loved this tour. Our guide for the Northern Lights tour was certainly an 'interesting' fellow but took us to an isolated place where we could view the lights without a million other people being there and gave us great instruction on how to take good photos. I am very impressed with his knowledge and his enthusiasm to get us to the best spot and get the most out of the experience. Our guides for the dog sledding and super jeep tours were also great. I really appreciated the concern our super jeep guide gave for the well being of our 18 month old son and his willingness to interact and entertain him while us adults ducked out to see the sights.
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We have just returned from a fabulous trip to Iceland. The staff at Nordic Visitor is top notch. They helped us to create a wonderful itinerary and set up our accommodations -- which were all terrific -- car rental, detailed map with the route and all the sights clearly highlighted, plus a mobile phone for emergencies.
This made the trip very easy. All of this would be expected of a good company. What made them extra special for me is that I managed to loose the detailed map on the first day of our excursion!. I called the office from the mobile they provided, explained what happened, and they assured me they would be able to get us another map probably at our next stay.How to Cite APA Format References (website, book, article, etc.)
This seemed impossible given we were quite a ways from Reykjavik, but we had no other choice. We spent the day touring around, and that evening upon returning to the hotel, the receptionist hands me another map complete with all the highlighted sights etc!!. I could not believe they were able to do this. I just got back from Nordic Visitor's Express Iceland Tour, which I took with a friend.
The trip was fantastic, and Nordic Visitor was terrific. Virtually everything came off exactly as promised.